What is Linux
Linux is an open source operating system.
An operating system(OS) is a piece of system software that manages computer hardware and software resources while also providing common services to computer programs. The operating system also enables you to communicate with the computer even if you do not understand its language. A computer cannot function without an operating system.
Popular operating systems include: Linux, Windows and Mac OS,
Short history of Linux
Linux was originally developed by a person called Linus Torvalds, who began work on Linux in 1991 as a student at the University of Helsinki in Finland. Linus announced the first “official” version of Linux, version 0.02, on October 5, 1991 (at age 21). Linus could run bash (the GNU Bourne Again Shell) and gcc (the GNU C compiler) at this point, but not much else.
There was never an announcement for Linux Version 0.01. The 0.01 sources were not even executable; they just included the most basic kernel source and required a Minix computer to compile and experiment with.
Once more, this system was created with hackers in mind. Kernel development was the main priority; user support, documentation, distribution, and other related concerns weren’t even considered. Today, things are very different; the true excitement in the Linux community revolves around graphical user environments, simple-to-install distribution packages, and advanced software like graphics tools and productivity suites.
The Linux kernel, the foundation of the operating system, was first made available in version 1.0 in 1994. At around the same time, American software developer Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation(FSF) started working on the GNU operating system, an open-source UNIX-like system. Unlike Torvalds, Stallman and the FSF started by developing operating system tools. The Linux kernel was subsequently enhanced with these tools to produce the finished system known as GNU/Linux or, less exactly, just Linux.
Throughout the 1990s, Linux expanded thanks to the work of amateur developers. Even though the widely used Microsoft Windows and Mac OS operating systems are more user-friendly, Linux is still a fast, stable system that rarely crashes.
Linux is popular for systems as diverse as cellular telephones and supercomputers because it is open-source and thus modifiable for different uses.
The Linux Kernel
The Linux kernel is the core interface between a computer’s hardware and its processes and is the main component of a Linux operating system. Linus Torvalds developed the Linux kernel, which is currently being worked on by thousands of developers as an open-source project.
The kernel loads initially and remains in memory until the operating system is shut down whenever an operating system is loaded into memory. Low-level tasks like task management, memory management, risk management, etc. are handled by the kernel.
The kernel is in charge of:
- Memory management: Keep tabs on what is being stored, how much memory is being consumed, and where.
- Process management: Establish which processes, when, and for how long can use the central processing unit (CPU).
- Device drivers: Serve as a go-between for the hardware and the processes.
- System calls and security control
The kernel acts as a service provider, so programs can request the kernel to perform multiple tasks, such as requesting the use of the disk, network card, or other pieces of hardware, and the kernel also sets interrupts for the CPU to enable multitasking.
Where is Linux used?
Linux now powers almost everything, but many people are unaware of this. Some may be familiar with Linux and may have heard that it is used to power supercomputers. But today, Linux has a plethora of real-world applications. Here are a few examples.
- Phones: In truth, Linux is the operating system that runs one of the world’s most widely used platforms, Android.
- Most electronic devices in many households like Smart TV.
- Ebook Readers and Tablets
- Desktops and laptops
- Businesses and governments like stock exchange.
- Routers and switches.
The list goes on and on. Today, Linux has a wide range of practical applications.
Linux is not only a pastime for hackers; it has many practical applications for both work and play. If you can think of it, someone has used Linux to achieve it, from managing web servers to computing data to playing old-school video games.
An operating system built from parts created by several open source projects and programmers is known as a Linux distribution. The Linux kernel, the terminal interface and commands, the desktop environment, a package management system, an installer, and other services are all included in every distribution.
Linux distributions incorporate code from various open source projects into a single installable and bootable operating system. There are Linux distributions for desktop computers, supercomputers, mobile devices, and specific applications such embedded systems and home theater PCs. Anyone can create their own Linux distribution by assembling it from the source code themselves or by changing an existing distribution because it is open source software. More than 200 Linux distributions are currently being actively maintained.
Top 10 most popular linux distributions:
- Red Hat Enterprise Linux
- Linux Mint
- SUSE Linux Enterprise
- Kali Linux
- Manjaro Linux
Why use Linux
Five most important reasons:
1. Higher Level of security:
The simplest approach to safeguard against viruses and malware on your computer is to install and run Linux. When Linux was developed, the security factor was taken into consideration, and it is considerably less susceptible to viruses than Windows.
2. Higher stability:
The Linux operating system is relatively reliable and does not frequently crash. Even after several years, the Linux OS still operates at the same speed as it did when it was originally installed. The majority of us must have seen that a Windows system that has just been installed works incredibly quickly before slowing down after six to twelve months. The majority of the time, your only choice is to completely reinstall the OS and all other software. The availability and uptime of Linux servers are both very good, at about 99.9%. A Linux server does not require a reboot after each update or patch, unlike Windows. As a result, Linux is the operating system that runs on the most servers online.
3. Free and Open Source
Users using Linux are not required to make any payments at all. There is all the fundamental software needed by both an average user and an advanced user. The fact that Linux is a Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) program is its most crucial feature.
4. Can run on old hardware
Linux utilizes the system’s resources very effectively. Linux installations can be tailored for individual users and for certain hardware needs. Users can pick and choose whatever modules they want to install thanks to the extremely flexible installation process. This enables them to install Linux even on outdated hardware, enabling the best possible use of all the machine’s capabilities.
5. Community Support
To fix an issue you are having with your Linux system, you do not need to engage a professional.
You only need to conduct a web search for a related subject to find a solution or start a thread to get help from others.